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Written by Akanksha Chowdhury of Amity University, Kolkata.

Edited by Gaurav Sanghi.


IVF or Invitro Fertilisation is a type of process of fertilisation in which an egg is combined along with the sperm outside the body i.e. in a vitro or commonly known as, glass. This particular process involves complete monitoring and also stimulating a women’s ovulatory process by removing an ovum or ova from the ovaries inside the women’s body and letting the sperm fertilise it in a liquid in the laboratory. After the egg is fertilised, it undergoes embryo culture for around 2-6 days. After that, it is implanted in the same or another uterus of a woman with an intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. IVF is recognised as one of the most important and assisted reproductive technology which is used for treating infertility and also gestational surrogacy. A fertilised egg is implanted into the uterus of a surrogate and that results in a child which is genetically not at all related to the surrogate. Many countries have banned this method or have regulated this method because it is against their values and culture. Such restrictions will lead to a lot of problems for a woman who wants to have a small family.
IVF is not used in some aspects until and unless it is less expensive. In order to have a healthy baby there are many factors which has to be kept in mind and analysed i.e. age and the cause of infertility. There are certain risks which are involved in IVF. IVF may lead to multiple births, premature delivery, low birth weight, miscarriage and Ectopic Pregnancy which means, fertilised egg gets implanted out of the uterus. When this happens, there is no way to carry out the pregnancy. There is also high risk of cancer and mental stress. Before opting for IVF, there are certain tests which have to be undertaken in order to know about the infertility cause and also several other factors. The tests are: Ovarian Reserve Testing, Semen Analysis, Infectious Disease Testing, Practice Embryo Mock Transfer and Uterine Testing. Before the eggs are retrieved, sometimes the IVF cycle is cancelled due to inadequate number of follicles developing, ovulation process premature, development of too many follicles which is really harmful and also some other medical conditions. If this is so, your doctor may ask you to look for an egg donor. After the embryo transfer process is done, you may go back to your normal life . But you still need to take care of yourself because your ovaries will still be enlarged. Therefore, you need to take serious care or else everything will go in vain. There are some side effects like mild bloating, mild cramps and also constipations. Lastly, your chances of becoming pregnant through IVF depends on certain factors like Maternal Age, Status of Embryo, Reproductive History, Cause of Infertility and also factors of lifestyle. The main thing which has to be always kept in mind is that whenever you face any changes in your body, always consult the doctor and take correct step.

In-Vitro Fertilisation has turned out to be a boon for the ones who could not have natural pregnancy. This artificial method is helping a lot of couple to have small family. There are some legal and ethical aspects which govern this method. We all know that IVF is a type of Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) and ART has resulted in progressive shift in which the doctors and physicians have got a lot of good advantages. Society has also realised the fact that ART should be used in a responsible manner which can be benefit for them at large. More legal aspects are covered under the guidelines issued by ICMR or Indian Council for Medical Research. But these guidelines are not at all proper because of the fact that they do not encourage foster parenthood and adoption and instead they use words like infertility which causes mental agony and pain and also a trauma which describes about the infertile couples. In India, first test tube baby was well documented in the year 1986. Post this, certain IVF clinics started to develop without any accreditation, regulatory body, supervision or control by the government. This particular aspect led ICMR to prepare certain ART Guidelines for the clinics in the year 2002. After that, The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare set out certain guidelines after having a clear examination and analysis of the previous guidelines.
Talking about other Legal Aspects, ICMR had drafted Assisted Reproductive Technology or ART Bill in the year 2008 and sent it to Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. Ministry of Law & Justice as ART Bill, 2013, had revised this particular bill. The main aim of this bill is to establish the National and State Boards and also a Registry Forum known as National Registry for ART in India for accrediting and also supervising ART clinics and Banks and also making a point to ensure that the ART services are useful and also beneficial for the general public as a whole. It must also ensure that the medical, legal and social stakeholders are satisfied with the services provided through this method. There has to be a clear setup of the things along with positive results in order to have hassle free IVF Practice throughout the country.

Therefore, we can conclude from the following article that IVF is considered to be one of the beneficial methods in the field of medicine and also helping the couples to have an extended family. But the laws should be wide and also cover more areas of IVF so that there is a hassle free treatment procedure and if in case there is any problem, then those guidelines can actually help to get justice. There have to be more law and order for IVF and also regulatory authorities who keep a check in safe and secured process throughout. IVF can be a successful method in treatment of infertility in women aged 40-45 years. Many renowned results suggest that the treatment regimen used results in a reasonably good pregnancy rate in both groups. Abnormal fertilization rate was similar in both groups. However, evidence of higher pregnancy rate in ICSI cycles is still vague and more studies are needed.

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